“A mortgage is a conveyance of property to secure the performance of some obligation, which is designed to come void upon due performance thereof.”[1] The Ohio Revised Code characterizes mortgages as “liens.”[2] Mortgage liens are only applicable to real property, as with the land and the buildings attached to it.

Mortgagors (the party granting the mortgage) tend to grant mortgages to secure payment of money from the mortgagee (the party granting a loan in consideration for the mortgage).[3] The instrument evidencing the debt secured by the mortgage is generally referred to as a “note.” However, mortgagors may grant mortgages to secure the performance of other obligations, like an environmental indemnification.

Notes and mortgages, as contracts, are negotiable by the parties to them. As such, notes and mortgages include all sorts of obligations and remedies. That said, there are three basic remedies that a mortgagee can pursue to enforce the note and mortgage.[4] Mortgages can pursue all three of the following remedies at the same time or separately.[5] However, in doing so, a mortgagee must keep in mind the different statute of limitations periods for each remedy.

(1) An action on the debt secured by the mortgage (the note).

When a mortgagee brings an action on the debt secured by the mortgage, the mortgagee is bringing an action for a personal judgment debt evidenced by the note against the mortgagor (or any other maker of the note, even if they did not sign the mortgage).[6]

In Ohio, written instruments, such as notes, have a six-year statute of limitations, running from the due date(s) or, if applicable, the date the debt is accelerated.[7] When the statute of limitations runs on the note, the mortgagee can still go after the mortgagor with a foreclosure action, as the statute of limitations on the mortgage is longer. The statute of limitations for the foreclosure does not run by virtue of the statute of limitations on the note running.[8]

(2) An action to foreclose on the mortgaged property.

When a mortgagee brings an action to foreclose on the mortgaged property, the mortgagee is attempting to secure the mortgagee’s conditional interest (conditional on mortgagor default) in the property.[9] If the mortgagee succeeds here, the mortgagee will have superior title to the property than that of the mortgagor.[10] The go-to remedy for mortgagees is that of an action to foreclose on the mortgaged property.[11]

In Ohio, foreclosure actions have an eight-year statute of limitations, running from the date that the breach occurred.[12] The statute of limitations for foreclosures was changed from fifteen years to eight years on September 28, 2012.[13] For breaches that occurred before September 28, 2012, the statute of limitations runs at the end of the fifteen-year period from the breach or September 27, 2020, whichever is earlier.[14]

(3) An action of ejectment against the occupier of the mortgaged property.[15]

When a mortgagee brings an action of ejectment against the occupier of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee is attempting to take possession of the property.[16] In doing this, the mortgagee is taking advantage of the mortgagee’s superior title to the property to that of the mortgagor. [17]

In Ohio, ejectment actions have a twenty-one-year statute of limitations, running from the date that the mortgage becomes due.[18]

The aforementioned information regarding the statute of limitations does not apply to the mortgage itself. A mortgage, that is unsatisfied or unreleased of record, remains in effect for twenty-one-years from the date of the mortgage or twenty-one-years from the date of the maturity date (if any), whichever is later.[19] This, however, deals more with the purchasing of encumbered property free from the prior mortgage, and the mortgagee’s ability to enforce a prior mortgage against purchaser.

If you, as a mortgagee, have a mortgagor in default and want to enforce the note, mortgage, or both, call the Finney Law Firm today!

[1] Barnets, Inc. v. Johnson, Case No. CA2004-02-005, 2005 Ohio App. LEXIS 703, *8 (Ohio App. 12th Dist. Feb. 22, 2005), citing Brown v. First Nat. Bank, 44 Ohio St. 269, 274 (1886).

[2] Barnets, at *8.

[3] Barnets. at *9.

[4] Barnets, at *9.

[5] Barnets, at *9.

[6] United States Bank Nat’l Ass’n v. O’Malley, 150 N.E.3d 532 (Ohio App. 8th Dist. Dec. 26, 2019).

[7] ORC Section 1303.16.

[8] O’Malley, at 532.

[9] O’Malley, at 532.

[10] Search Mgmt. L.L.C. v. Fillinger, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 1966, *1.

[11] Barnets, at *9.

[12] ORC Section 2305.06.

[13]Ohio Real Property Law and Practice § 19.10 (2020).

[14] Ohio Real Property Law and Practice § 19.10 (2020)

[15] Barnets, at *9.

[16] Fillinger, at *1.

[17] Fillinger, at *1.

[18] Cont’l W. Reserve v. Island Dev. Corp., 1997 Ohio App. LEXIS 962, *1.

[19] ORC Section 5301.30.

In order to best serve our clients, the Finney Law Firm’s Employment Law team closely tracks proposed Ohio, Kentucky, and federal employment legislation. The Ohio General Assembly and Kentucky Legislature are currently debating small, yet significant, changes to their employment laws.

Ohio

In Ohio, Senate Bill 47 would amend Ohio’s wage and hour statute, O.R.C. 4111.01, et seq., to incorporate the federal “Portal to Portal Act” into Ohio law. Should the bill pass, the proposed O.R.C. 4111.031 Ohio would explicitly eliminate employees from being compensated for time travelling to and from the place of performance, activities that are preliminary to or postliminary to the principal activities, and activities requiring insignificant or de minimis time. The rule would not apply where the activities are preformed either during the regular work day or during prescribed hours, or at the direction of the employer.

As S.B. 47 merely harmonizes Ohio law with the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, most Ohio employers should be unaffected by the changes. However, all employers should have a knowledgeable employment attorney review their policies and procedures for the handling of out of office work, especially in regards to emails. While a simple review of an email outside of work hours is likely de minimis time, an email requiring a substantive response or directing to an immediate task would likely not be exempt time under the proposed O.R.C 4111.031.

Kentucky

Kentucky is currently one of 26 states with laws that prohibit discriminating against smokers who otherwise comply with workplace rules. Senate Bill 258 would eliminate protections for smokers from K.R.S. 344.040, allowing employers to, among other things, require an employee or job applicant to abstain from smoking or using tobacco during or outside of the course of employment. Should the bill pass, Kentucky employers would be permitted to modify their handbook and hiring policies to exclude smokers and create a generally healthier work environment.

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Please contact Stephen E. Imm (513.943.5678) of Matthew Okiishi (‭513.943.6659) for help with an employment law issue.

Debtors that anticipate being subject to a judgment might fraudulently transfer their assets in an attempt to hide those assets from their creditors. This issue might even exist after the creditor obtains a judgment against the debtor. Just because a debtor might do this, does not mean that creditors are out of luck. 

Ohio’s Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act, under ORC Chapter 1336, creates rights for creditors to set aside fraudulent transfers by debtors. The point of these rights is to do away with fraudulent transfers that “prevent a creditor from obtaining satisfaction of an underlying debt.” 

There are four general causes of action under ORC Chapter 1336. A fraudulent transfer, as the one described above, would likely fall under the cause of action provided by ORC Section 1336.04(A)(1). To succeed on such a claim, the creditor must prove that there was a transfer of an asset with actual intent to defraud, hinder, or delay present or future creditors. A creditor may prove “actual intent” through the use of circumstantial evidence. Types of circumstantial evidence, or badges, are listed in ORC Section 1336.04(B). 

If a creditor fraudulently transfers assets, ORC Section 1336.08 generally allows creditors to sue the transferees (i.e., parties that received the fraudulent transfers). The creditor can sue any of the transferees for the value of the transferred property, subject to certain defenses.” That is not to say that a creditor would be required to sue every single transferee. The only “necessary party would be the transferee (or participant for whose benefit the transaction was made) from whom recovery is sought.” The statute is written as such because in most fraudulent transfer cases, “the debtor is judgment-proof and the transfer was made to hide the property from the creditor.” 

ORC Section 1336.07 addresses creditor remedies, which include:

  1. an avoidance of the transfer; 
  2. an attachment or garnishment against the asset transferred or other property of the debtor;
  3. an injunction against further disposition of the asset transferred or other property of the debtor;
  4. an appointment of a receiver to take charge of the asset transferred; or
  5. any other relief that the circumstances of the case may require.”

Punitive damages may also be awarded. However, ORC Section 2315.21(C) states that punitive damages are not recoverable unless: 

  1. the actions or omissions of that debtor demonstrate malice or aggravated or egregious fraud, and 
  2. the trier of fact has made a determination of the total compensatory damages recoverable by the creditor from that debtor.

Attorneys’ fees may also be awarded. However, there is not an automatic award of attorney fees for those who prevail under ORC Section 1336. The creditor “may only recover reasonable attorney fees” when punitive damages are awarded.

So, if you are a creditor chasing a debtor who is actively fraudulently transferring assets to hide them from you, it might be time to call an attorney with the Finney Law Firm. 

Contact Jennings Kleeman at 513.797.2858 for assistance with a fraudulent transfer claim.

Contractors, laborers, and materialmen tend to run into issues receiving payment for their work on certain projects. A terrific way for contractors, laborers, and materialmen to guard against not getting paid is to attach a Mechanic’s Lien to the property on which the contractors, laborers, and materialmen performed their work. From an extremely general point of view, to perfect a Mechanic’s Lien, contractors, laborers, and materialmen must file an “Affidavit for Mechanic’s Lien,” with the recorder’s office in the county where the property is located.

It is key to remember that there are time limits that must be adhered to on the front end and back end of filing an Affidavit for Mechanic’s Lien.

The Front End

When it comes to the front end, the time limit will vary based on the type of project.

If the Mechanic’s Lien is associated with a residential property, like a family home or condominium, then a contractor, laborer, or materialman claiming a Mechanic’s Lien has sixty (60) days from the date that the last labor was performed, or material was provided by the contractor, laborer, or materialman.[1]

If a Mechanic’s Lien is associated with oil or gas wells or facilities, then a contractor, laborer, or materialman claiming a Mechanic’s Lien has one hundred and twenty (120) days from the date that the last labor was performed, or material was provided by the contractor, laborer, or materialman.[2]

For all other Mechanic’s Liens, a contractor, laborer, or materialman claiming a Mechanic’s Lien has one seventy-five (75) days from the date that the last labor was performed, or material was provided by the contractor, laborer, or materialman.[3]

The Back End

ORC Section 1311.13 deals with attachment of liens, continuance, and priority. ORC Section 1311.13(C) states that Mechanic’s Liens, under sections 1311.01 to 1311.24, continue for six years after the Affidavit for Mechanic’s Lien is filed with the county recorder, as required by ORC Section 1311. If a cause of action based on a Mechanic’s Lien is brought within the six years, then the Mechanic’s Lien will continue “in force until final adjudication thereof.”

If a cause of action based on a Mechanic’s Lien is not brought within the six-year period, then the rights associated with the Mechanic’s Lien are extinguished.[4] Thus, there is a six-year statute of limitations to bring a cause of action based on a Mechanic’s Lien.[5] Furthermore, “the statutory scheme for the filing and enforcement of [M]echanic’s [L]iens does not provide for the tolling or expansion of designated statutory time limits.”[6]

If you have a Mechanic’s Lien and need to act, please feel free to reach out to the Finney Law Firm, before it is too late!

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[1] ORC Ann. 1311.06(B)(1).

[2] ORC Ann. 1311.06(B)(2).

[3] ORC Ann. 1311.06(B)(2).

[4] Banner Constr. Co. v. Koester, 2000 Ohio App. LEXIS 1313, *1.

[5] Id.

[6] Id.

Today, President Joseph Biden announced immediate and significant changes to the Paycheck Protection program, as follows:

  1. Priority period for businesses with fewer than 20 employees for two weeks starting this Wednesday, February 24th.
  2. Different loan (grant) calculation for sole proprietors and a set-aside of $1 billion for businesses in low- and moderate income areas.
  3. Made eligible those with non-fraud felony convictions.
  4. Made eligible business owners with student loan defaults.
  5. Made eligible all lawful U.S. residents with visas or Green Cards.

Forbes magazine has more details on these breaking developments here.

The second round of stimulus signed by then-President Trump in December extended the Centers for Disease Control limited federal eviction moratorium (started in October) through January 31, and then immediately upon taking office, President Biden extended the stay on evictions through March 31. So, landlords of qualifying non-paying tenants continue to be legally prohibited from recovering possession of their properties.

And a related component of the second stimulus bill was a rental assistance program that allowed tenants — with federal subsidy — to continue to pay their rent, and even recoup back rental accrued, so landlords could be made whole despite the eviction prohibition.

Today’s New York Times writes on the toll the pandemic is taking on the housing industry, including landlords and tenants, which led us to update on “what is the status of the rental assistance component of the stimulus bill?”

What do we know:

  • The rental assistnce is being given from the federal government to the states, who will then each establish their criteria, and application and distribution programs. Some states will be distributing the money to counties and cities for further distribution. What this will mean is a patchwork of criteria for qualification, multiple software portals, and delays in implementation.
  • We have inquired to to roll-out dates and assistance criteria and, at least as to Ohio and Kentucky, not only are none of the application and distribution procedures known, there does not even appear to be discussions with stakeholders taking place as to how best to get the assistance to those in need.
  • Thus, we had hoped that tenants and landlords could get relief by some time in March, but that does not appear feasible. Our best bet right now is April/May, but that is just speculation.

The fact that Ohio paid out $330 million in fraudulent unemployment claims in 2020 will likely slow the process to assure that bogus rental assistance claims do not slide through.

We will attempt to keep our readers informed of developments on the moratorium and rental assistance programs as they emerge.

Every year, the Auditor of each of Ohio’s 88 counties publishes a chart like this showing the tax rates for each taxing district in each County.

In Hamilton County, there are 241 distinct taxing districts, each having a complex calculation to develop the net residential and commercial rates of taxation (taxing districts being greater in number than either municipalities and townships or school districts, because the boundaries of some frequently overlap one another). Here are the five highest commercial and residential taxing districts in Hamilton County:

Highest Commercial rates
MunicipalityTownshipSchool DistrictCommercial millageCommercial percentage
WyomingSpringfieldFinneytown135.544.765%
ColombiaMariemont131.3564.618%
SpringfieldFinneytown128.5894.521%
Lincoln HeightsPrinceton123.754.351%
Mt. HealthySpringfieldMt. Healthy121.6654.277%
Highest Residential rates
MunicipalityTownshipSchool DistrictResidential millageResidential percentage
Lincoln HeightsPrinceton111.4663.919%
WyomingSpringfieldFinneytown110.3443.879%
Mt. HealthySpringfieldMt. Healthy104.6193.678%
SpringfieldFinneytown103.3943.635%
Golf ManorCincinnati101.263.560%

As you can see, several Hamilton County commercial districts well exceed 4.0% in annual tax rates (approaching 5.0%) and the highest residential rates are bumping up against the 4.0% threshold.

 

We were just notified that attorney Christopher P. Finney, founder of the Finney Law Firm, again has been named “Leading Lawyer” by Cincy Magazine for 2021. The specific practice category in which Mr. Finney was selected is “First Amendment Law.”

These awards are on top of “Ohio Lawyer of the Year” by Ohio Lawyer Magazine, “AV Preeminent” by Martindale Hubbell, and the the firm’s recognition in “Best Lawyers” by US News.

We thank our clients for the opportunity to work on such rewarding and meaningful cases and these services for recognizing our proficiency.

 

The Cincinnati Area Board of Realtors today reported December 2020 home sales numbers. And once again reported record-breaking home sales:

  • The most home sales of any December in Greater Cincinnati.
  • Average sales and median pricing continued their ongoing increases.
  • Closings in December exploded, up 21.04% against a strong December 2019 with total sales volume up 35.66%.
  • December 2020 home sales were 2,267 compared to 1,873 in December 2019.

You may read the CABR release here.